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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Leontios. Emperor January 27, 945 - November 9, 959 Full name Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Constantine III (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄; Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Eastern Roman Emperor for four months in 641, making him the shortest reigning Byzantine emperor. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia. The activities of the invading tribes, raids by Saxons on the near-defenseless Britain and desertions by some of his top commanders led to a collapse of support. He was a pleasure-loving man who allowed the administration to fall into the hands of others. Constantine III and Heraklonas were Byzantine Emperors in 641 A.D., as the Empire engaged in a "rebuilding" or "youth movement." It was rumoured that he was poisoned by order of his stepmother, but he may have died of tuberculosis. He was captured and executed shortly afterwards. ... Constantine III. Encouraged by the entreaties of officials of the western court, he marched on Italy with the troops left to him. He struck first at Hispania. Flavius Claudius Constantinus,[2] known in English as Constantine III (died shortly before 18 September 411), was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. Tiberius III Apsimar. He is often confused with the Constantine found in Geoffrey of Monmouth's highly popular and imaginative Historia Regum Britanniae, who comes to power following Gracianus Municeps' reign. [19], That year was Constantine's high-water mark. During his reign, court intrigues nearly led to civil war, which was prevented by his death. [24] Constantine, his hopes fading after his troops guarding the Rhine abandoned him to support Jovinus, surrendered to Constantius. Constantine III is of no relation to the Constantine described in Geoffrey's account and he has no link to the legend of King Arthur. Constantine III (February - April/May 641 A.D.) R. Scott Moore. During his reign, court intrigues nearly led to civil war, which was prevented by his death. Omissions? The garrisons had not been paid and had determined to choose their own leader. Constantine IV. Constantine III, also called Heraclius Constantine, (born May 3, 612—died April or May, 641), Byzantine emperor from January to April or May 641. Constantine maist commonly refers tae ane o the follaein: . The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s…. The tribes reached the Pyrenees, where they broke through Constantine's garrisons and entered Hispania. "Marcus, Gratian, Constantine", This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 01:08. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Locations associated with Arthurian legend, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constantine_III_(Western_Roman_emperor)&oldid=999210618, Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [8] Constantine prepared to send his son Constans back to deal with this crisis when word came that his general Gerontius had rebelled, raising his relative, Maximus of Hispania, as co-emperor. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411.[3]. It is Geoffrey's Constantine who, through his son Uther Pendragon, becomes the grandfather of the legendary King Arthur. Constantine feared that Honorius' cousins would organise an attack from that direction while troops under Sarus and Stilicho attacked him from Italy in a pincer manoeuvre. Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperors. It became … Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died shortly before 18 September 411), was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. Constantine had seven children in all and the birth of his first, his son Leo, would give rise to the oft-use… Constantine IV (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Δ', Kōnstantinos IV, Latin: Flavius Constantinus Augustus) (c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, [1] was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. 695 - 705. Constans II Greek: Κώνστας Β Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus 7 November 630 15 September 668 emperor or Herac Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died 411 by 18 September) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul.. Recognised by the Emperor Honorius in 409, collapsing support and military setbacks saw him abdicate in 411. Upon Heraclius'death on February 11, 641, his will declared his sons, Heraclius Constantine(Constantine III) and Heraclonas, as co-emperors and … [22] But on his arrival Edobichus was defeated in an ambush. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, [1] known in English as Constantine III (died 411 by 18 September) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul.Recognised by the Emperor Honorius in 409, collapsing support and military setbacks saw him abdicate in 411. [22][citation needed] Distressed that Constantine had failed to defend them, the Roman inhabitants of Britain and Armorica (Brittany) rebelled and expelled his officials. [5] Constantine was a common soldier, but one of some ability. A short presentation of all the Byzantine emperors with biographical data and information about the main historical events during their reign. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411. [18], Constans left his wife and household at Saragossa under the care of Gerontius and returned to Arles to report to his father. Heraclonas (Heraclius II) was born in Constantinople in 626 to the emperorHeracliusand his second wife Martina. 685 - 695. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia. After further military setbacks he abdicated in 411. This is a list of every Byzantine emperor, empress, king and queen since the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), including the rulers of the modern Kingdom of Byzantium, founded in 1805. Constantine was crowned co-emperor with his father in 720 CE. [4] Their first two choices, Marcus and Gratian, did not meet their expectations and were killed. This quiz includes brief rulers or co-rulers and empresses. [26], Athaulf the Visigoth later suppressed the revolt of Jovinus. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following the death of Heraclius. [19] Meanwhile, the loyalist Roman army mutinied at Ticinum (Pavia) on 13 August, which was followed by the execution of Honorius' general Stilicho on 22 August. 641. Constantine's birth name was Heraclius Novus Constantinus, (Greek: Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος), which was also the official name under which he reigned. Updates? Only the monarchs who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to … Constans II. As the historian Procopius later explained, "from that time onwards it remained under [the rule] of tyrants. Constantine (name), a gien name an surname Constantine I, Roman Emperor frae 306 tae 337, commonly kent as Constantine the Great; It mey an aw refer tae: So, when Constantine's envoys arrived to parley, the fearful Honorius recognised Constantine as co-emperor, and the two were joint consuls for the year 409. This list does not include numerous co-emperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers. Court intrigues nearly led to a civil war, which was prevented by the death of Constantine (May 641), after a brief reign of 103 days. (Born of the Purple Room) Born September 2, 905 Birthplace Constantinople Died November 9, 959 (aged 54) Place of death Constantinople Predecessor Alexander Successor Romanos II Wife Helena Lekapene Offspring. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) is similar to these monarches: Heraclius, Martinus (son of Heraclius), Heraclius the Elder and more. 5 Angelids and 4 Laskarids are included but post-1453 claimants are not. Despite the promise of safe passage, and Constantine's assumption of clerical office, Constantius imprisoned the former soldier and had him beheaded on his way to Ravenna[citation needed] in either August or September 411. [16] He summoned his eldest son, Constans, from the monastery where he was dwelling, elevated him to Caesar,[17] and sent him with the general Gerontius towards Hispania,[8] where they defeated the cousins of Honorius with little difficulty; two – Didymus and Verinianus – were captured, and two others – Lagodius and Theodosiolus – escaped, Lagodius to Rome and Theodosiolus to Constantinople. Constantine III (Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus; Greek: Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος, Herákleios néos Kōnstantînos; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was the shortest reigning Byzantine emperor, ruling for four months in 641.He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia. Constantine III ( [Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄ Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus] error: { {lang-xx}}: text has italic markup ( help) ); 3 Mey 612 – 20 Aprile or 24/26 Mey 641) wis Byzantine Emperor for fower month in 641. He was the eldest son of the … This left Honorius in Ravenna without any significant military power, and facing a Gothic army under Alaric that roamed unchecked in northern Italy. He crossed the Channel at Bononia (Boulogne) and (historians have assumed) took with him all of the mobile troops left in Britain, thus denuding the province of any first line military protection and explaining the disappearance of the legions from Britannia in the early fifth century. [8] Constantine's position became untenable; Gerontius defeated his forces at Vienne in 411; there his son Constans was captured and executed. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Justinian II. 80px: Constans II (Κῶνστας Βʹ) formally Constantine "the Bearded", https://www.britannica.com/biography/Constantine-III-Byzantine-emperor, Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors - Constantine III. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411. He was coemperor with his father, Heraclius, from 613 and with his brother Heraclonas from 638. On 31 December 406 several tribes of barbarian invaders, including the Vandals, the Burgundians, the Alans and the Sueves had crossed the Rhine, perhaps near Mainz, and overrun the Roman defensive works in a successful invasion of the Western Roman Empire. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wif He was coemperor with his father, Heraclius, from 613 and with his brother Heraclonas from 638. [21], At about the same time Saxon pirates raided Britain, which Constantine had left defenceless. This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople. Hispania was a stronghold of the House of Theodosius[14] and loyal to the ineffectual Honorius. [citation needed] Constantine held out, hoping for the return of Edobichus, who was raising troops in northern Gaul amongst the Franks. Constantine was born in 718 CE as the son and successor to Emperor Leo III, a Syrian diplomat under Justinian II who had gone on to found the Isaurian dynasty which lasted until 802 CE. History is treated in a number of articles. TrustedCoins.com Authentic Ancient Greek Roman Biblical Numismatic Coins for … In 406, the provinces of Roman Britain revolted. Aldroenus refuses, believing the country to have diminished, but sends his brother Constantine to rule instead. Geoffrey's Constantine is the brother of Aldroenus, both of whom were the descendants of Conan Meriadoc. Constantine III (28 years of age) was the eldest son of Heraclius by his late first wife, Okee-Dokia, while Heraklonas (15) was his eldest by his second wife, Martina Hingis. [17][23], Constantine's response to this tightening circle of enemies was a final desperate gamble. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. In 732 CE he married Irene, the daughter of the Turkic tribal leader Khazar khan, although, following her premature death, the emperor would marry twice more. Constantine VIII, (born 960/961—died Nov. 12, 1028), Byzantine emperor, coemperor with his brother Basil II from c. 962 to 1025 and sole ruler from 1025 to 1028. In Geoffrey's account, the Britons ask Aldroenus [fr], the ruler of Armorica, to be their ruler after the Roman withdrawal, seeking a king who can defend them against the barbarians. As a result, Honorius recognised Constantine as co-emperor in 409. HeraclonasConstantineIII. Stevens, C.E. [25] His head, on a pole, was presented to Emperor Honorius on 18 September. Constantine rose to power during a bloody struggle in Roman Britain and was acclaimed emperor by the local legions in 407. ... Constantine III : Constans II Pogonatus: Constantine IV: Constantine III of Byzantium (3 May 612-26 May 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from February to May 641, succeeding Heraclius and preceding Herakleonas of Byzantium . Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... History, the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes. Before Mexico had the Niños Héroes (Baby Heroes), Byzantium had the Baby Emperors. [8] The Roman forces in Gaul (modern France) declared for him, followed by most of those in Hispania (modern Spain). While he had been fighting Honorius' armies, some of the Vandal tribes had overrun Constantine's Rhine defenses and spent two years and eight months burning and plundering their way through Gaul. [9], Constantine's forces won several confrontations with the Vandals and quickly secured the line of the Rhine. This is a list of the emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. Sarus the Goth, a commander of Honorius, defeated two of Constantine's generals, Iustinianus and the Frank Nebiogastes, who were leading the vanguard of his forces. 668 - 685. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died shortly before 18 September 411) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. The sitting Western emperor, Honorius, ordered Stilicho, his leading general, or magister militum, to expel Constantine. He was captured and executed shortly afterwards. Biography of Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) (excerpt) Constantine III (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Γ'; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. [8] Constantine, though, had insufficient forces and retreated into Gaul in the late spring of 410. Corrections? [10] Constantine's lieutenant, Nebiogastes, was first trapped in, then killed outside, Valence. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Flavius Claudius Constantinus,known in English as Constantine III(died shortly before 18 September 411), was a Romangeneral who declared himself Western Roman Emperorin Britanniain 407 and established himself in Gaul. Constantine III (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄ ; Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus ; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Byzantine emperor for four months in 641, making him the shortest reigning Byzantine emperor. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died shortly before 18 September 411) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. [10] Despite Constantine's best efforts, the feared attack from Hispania came the following year, when Gerontius advanced with the support of his barbarian allies. Constantine's birth name was Heraclius Novus Constantinus, (Greek: Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος), which was also … Taen frae " https://sco.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constantine_III_ (Byzantine_emperor)&oldid=787534 ". [6] Early in 407, they acclaimed him as emperor. Gerontius committed suicide and many of his troops deserted to Constantius, who took over the siege. The name Constantine became established in later Byzantine texts as short for the Emperor and has become standard in modern historiography. He was captured and executed shortly afterwards. Constantine III, also called Heraclius Constantine, (born May 3, 612—died April or May, 641), Byzantine emperor from January to April or May 641. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411. Constantine III (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄ Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus) (3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. Accession. For the principal treatment of the…, Emperor, title designating the sovereign of an empire, conferred originally on rulers of the ancient Roman Empire and on various later European rulers, though the term is also applied descriptively to some non-European monarchs. [15], In the summer of 408, the Roman forces in Italy assembled to attack Constantine. Constantine III ( Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. [7][2], Constantine moved quickly. Constantine rose to power during a bloody struggle in Roman Britain and was acclaimed emperor by the local legions in 407. Guide to Ancient Byzantine Coins How To and Types to Collect and Where to Buy Them Online - Duration: 24:48. Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) Constantine gained the upper hand after several battles with the forces of the Western Roman Emperor Honorius. Heraklonas. Constantine III., son of the emperor Heraclius (d. 641) by his first wife Eudocia, succeeded his father as joint-emperor with Heracleonas, the son of Heraclius by his second wife Martina. Sole emperor after the death of Constantine III, under the regency of Martina, but was forced to name Constans II co-emperor by the army, and was deposed by the Senate in September 641. Fearful of a Germanic invasion and desperate for some sense of security in a world that seemed to be rapidly falling apart, the Roman military in Britain sought greater security in strong and able military leadership and chose as their leader a man named after the famed emperor of the early fourth century, Constantine the Great, who had himself risen to power through a military coup in Britain. [citation needed] They wanted to replace Honorius with a more capable ruler. [10] Constantine's praetorian prefect Decimus Rusticus, who had replaced Apollinaris a year earlier, abandoned Constantine to be caught up in the new rebellion of Jovinus in the Rhineland. [13] By May 408 he had made Arles his capital,[14] where he appointed Apollinaris, the grandfather of Sidonius Apollinaris, as prefect. [citation needed] Roman rule never returned to Britain after the death of Constantine III. It was later displayed outside Carthage. The bishop would pray over the diadem or crown, bless the imperial insignia, and anoint the emperor’s head with myrrh. "[27], Constantine III is also known as Constantine II of Britain. [20] Intrigue within the Imperial court caused the general Sarus and his men to abandon the western army. Gerontius trapped Constantine inside Arles and besieged him. [11] Constantine sent another army headed by Edobichus and Gerontius, and Sarus retreated into Italy, needing to buy his passage through the Alpine passes from the brigand Bagaudae, who controlled them. He promptly moved to Gaul, taking all of the mobile troops from Britain, to confront the various Germanic invaders who had crossed the Rhine the previous winter. 695 - 698. Constantine becomes king and has three sons, Constans, Aurelius and Uther, but is stabbed to death by a Pict.[28]. 641 - 668. The military flavour of the ceremony would continue into the 6th century CE but an important and lasting addition was the role played by the Patriarch of Constantinople from the 5th century CE onwards. In republican Rome (c. 509–27 bce), imperator denoted a victorious…, Byzantine Empire, the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in 1453. [12] With these advances, Constantine controlled all of Gaul and garrisoned the Alpine passes into Italy. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He arrived at Arles and put Gerontius to flight. The coronation ceremony of Byzantium developed from the simpler ceremony of ancient Rome where the newly crowned emperor was acclaimed by the army who raised their shields in salute. “A chronological list of the rulers of Byzantium—Emperors Constantine, Justinian, and others—that encompasses the first golden age of the empire, the Early Byzantine period, as well as Middle and Late Byzantium, and the Latin Occupation.” [8], At the same time, Honorius found a new general, the future Constantius III. Father, Heraclius, from 613 and with his brother Heraclonas from 638 sends his brother Heraclonas 638. Where they broke through Constantine 's forces won several confrontations with the Vandals quickly... Whom were the descendants of Conan Meriadoc 's lieutenant, Nebiogastes, was trapped... The Great, the future Constantius III the troops left to him was Constantine 's garrisons and entered.. [ 23 ], Constantine III following the death of Heraclius signing up for this email, you agreeing. 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